Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Journal Name: 
JAMA
Authors: 
Ball,K.
Berch,D.B.
Helmers,K.F.
Jobe,J.B.
Leveck,M.D.
Marsiske,M.
Morris,J.N.
Rebok,G.W.
Smith,D.M.
Tennstedt,S.L.
Unverzagt,F.W.
Willis,S.L.
Abstract: 
CONTEXT: Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independent-living adults. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with recruitment conducted from March 1998 to October 1999 and 2-year follow-up through December 2001. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer sample of 2832 persons aged 65 to 94 years recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospital/clinics in 6 metropolitan areas in the United States. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 10- session group training for memory (verbal episodic memory; n = 711), or reasoning (ability to solve problems that follow a serial pattern; n = 705), or speed of processing (visual search and identification; n = 712); or a no-contact control group (n = 704). For the 3 treatment groups, 4-session booster training was offered to a 60% random sample 11 months later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive function and cognitively demanding everyday functioning. RESULTS: Thirty participants were incorrectly randomized and were excluded from the analysis. Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline, durable to 2 years (P
11
13
2002
Volume: 
288
Pages: 
2271-81
Keywords: 
10, 20, Activities of Daily Living, Adult, Aged, Aged,80 and over, Cognition, Cognitive Therapy, community, effects, Human, intervention, Memory, Mental Processes, Psychological Tests, ResNet, Single-Blind Method, support, Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S., Treatment Outcome, United States